Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound is a technique that converts standard 2D grayscale ultrasound images into a volumetric dataset.The 3D image can then be reviewed retrospectively. The technique was developed for problem-solving (particularly in obstetric/gynecologic exams) and to potentially reduce the operator dependence of ultrasound imaging.
American Roentgen Ray Society Radiology Reference The American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS), founded in 1900, is the oldest learned society for radiologists in the United States. It publishes the monthly American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR).Its current President is Ruth C Carlos. Journals Am
The anode (or anticathode) is the component of the x-ray tube where x-rays are produced. It is a piece of metal, shaped in the form of a bevelled disk with a diameter between 55 and 100 mm, and thickness of 7 mm, connected to the positive side of the electrical circuit.
CT dose Radiology Reference Article RadiopaediaCT dose is measured and reported via a variety of methods, put simply, it can be divided into three primary categories:exposure, absorbed dose, and effective dose. It is important to note that to accurately determine a patients dose from a CT
Cerebral hemisphere Radiology Reference Article The two cerebral hemispheres are divided in the midsagittal plane by the interhemispheric fissure. Together they fill most of the intra-cranial cavity. Gross anatomy The medial surface of each cerebral hemisphere is flat, the inferior surface i
Computed tomography (CT) scanning, also known as, especially in the older literature and textbooks, computerized axial tomography (CAT) scanning, is a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses x-rays to build cross-sectional images ("slices") of the body. Cross-sections are reconstructed from measurements of attenuation coefficients of x-ray beams in the volume of the object studied.
Doppler shift Radiology Reference Article RadiopaediaDoppler shift or Doppler effect is defined as the change in frequency of sound wave due to a reflector moving towards or away from an object, which in the case of ultrasound is the transducer. Terminology When sound of a given frequency is disc
Dose area product Radiology Reference Article The dose area product (DAP) or kerma area product (KAP) is a method of radiation dose monitoring used in radiographic and fluoroscopic studies.It provides an indication of the radiation dose received by a patient. It is calculated as the product of dose and beam area (Gy.cm 2), and is measured using an ionization chamber placed between the x-ray tube/collimator set up and the patient.
This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Esophageal cancer is a relatively uncommon tumor that occurs within the esophagus of affected individuals. Patients present with symptoms of increasing dysphagia that progre
Filtered back projection Radiology Reference Article Filtered back projection is an analytic reconstruction algorithm designed to overcome the limitations of conventional back projection; it applies a convolution filter to remove blurring. It was, up until recently the primary method in cross-secti
History of radiology Radiology Reference Article The history of radiology can be traced back to Wilhelm Roentgen taking the first x-ray of a person - specifically his wife's hand on November 8th 1895, now an iconic image. Since then there have been many milestones and individual contributions
Intraosseous gas, also known as osseous pneumatosis, refers to the accumulation of gas bubbles within the cortical bone, trabecular bone, the bone marrow, or in the medullary cavity. Intraosseous gas is an uncommon finding and differentials incl
Ischemic fasciitis Radiology Reference Article Ischemic fasciitis refers to a reactive pseudosarcomatous fibroblastic or myofibroblastic proliferation associated with physical constraints. Terminology Terms that are no longer recommended for use include pseudosarcomatous fibromatosis and
MRI physics Radiology Reference Article RadiopaediaThe physics of MRI are complicated and much harder to understand than those underpinning image generation in plain radiography, CT or ultrasound. What follows is a very abbreviated, 'broad strokes' description of the process. Essentially, the p
Mnemonics articles are a special type of article with specific style requirements outlined below. Radiopaedia is free thanks to our supporters and advertisers. Become a Gold Supporter and see no ads. Articles. LAST CHANCE:X-ray Interpretation:
Rotating envelope x-ray tube Radiology Reference Article Rotating envelope x-ray tubes (RET), are a relatively novel type of high-performance x-ray tube developed in the early 2000s. Their two main features are the direct contact of the anode plate with the cooling oil, and rotation of the entire envel
X-ray tube diagrams Radiology Case RadiopaediaGlowing filament, cathode ray, and x-ray creation are variously depicted.
The cathode is part of an x-ray tube and serves to expel the electrons from the circuit and focus them in a beam on the focal spot of the anode.It is a controlled source of electrons for the generation of x-ray beams. The electrons are produced by heating the filament (Joule heating effect) i.e. a coil of wire made from tungsten, placed within a cup-shaped structure, a highly polished nickel